Maastricht Agreement Eu

In a rapidly changing political climate, following the fall of the Berlin Wall and the demise of the Iron Curtain, the need to give new impetus to political union has become increasingly evident. That is why two intergovernmental conferences were convened at the European Council in Dublin in June 1990, one on economic and monetary union and the other on political union. These conferences were opened on December 15, 1990. A year later, in December 1991, the Maastricht European Council reached an agreement on the new treaty. The Treaty on the European Union was signed on 28 February 1992 and came into force on 1 November 1993, after being ratified by all Member States. The Maastricht Treaty, officially known as the Treaty on the European Union, is the international agreement that is responsible for the creation of the European Union (EU), signed in 1991 and entered into force in 1993. The European Union (EU) is a group of 28 countries that acts as a cohesive economic and political bloc. Nineteen countries use the euro as their official currency. The Maastricht Treaty was approved in December 1991 by the heads of government of the European Community (EC) states. The treaty required the voters of each country to approve the European Union, which proved to be a very controversial issue in many areas. The agreement ended with the creation of the European Union and has since been amended by other treaties. The Maastricht Treaty was signed on 7 February 1992 by the heads of state or government of 12 Member States (Belgium, Italy, Luxembourg, France, the Netherlands, West Germany, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Portugal and Spain).

The treaty came into force on November 1, 1993. The international agreement laid the groundwork for the euro, confirming the right of European citizens to travel freely, work and study and vote for elections to the European Parliament in each member state of the bloc. The Social Policy Protocol introduced a new legislative procedure to be applied exclusively in the area of social policy. Under certain conditions, the social partners may decide to establish contractual relationships that could lead to an agreement between the parties; At the request of the parties, this agreement can be transformed by the Council into a Community act. 3) the exchange rate of the national currency in the “normal fluctuation margins of the exchange rate mechanism of the European monetary system without strong tensions for at least the last two years”; and in achieving its objectives, the Community must respect the principle of subsidiarity, which means that it should only act if the objectives are better achieved at Community level than at the Level of the Member States. The Political Committee, composed of political directors and responsible for monitoring the international situation and the implementation of the relevant policies. Overall, the Maastricht Treaty was one of the main treaty changes in the history of European integration. It contained provisions for the creation of an Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), including a single European currency.

It sought to strengthen the democratic legitimacy and effectiveness of the decision-making process by strengthening the European Parliament (EP) and extending qualified majority voting (QMV). In addition to introducing the principle of subsidiarity and the concept of citizenship, it has developed existing policies such as social policy and has added new policies such as education, culture, public health, consumer protection, trans-European networks, industrial policy and development cooperation.